A modern cottage is warm and cozy, thanks to double-glazed windows and modern construction technologies, there is no room for drafts and arbitrary airflow. The output is in the device of the ventilation system.
Natural ventilation has many supporters. Indeed, if the house stands in the forest, not far from a clean lake, why does it need forced ventilation? But open apartments are not an option either. Flies, mosquitoes, poplar fluff and other flying seeds create a lot of problems. And drafts?
The solution is provided by ventilation systems for windows. They can be combined with a roller blind, which is lowered from the outside of the window and protects from the sun’s heat more effectively than internal curtains and blinds.
Aluminum grills become part of the facade, effectively protecting it from the sun. Of course, such an outfit will go, first of all, in houses of ultra-modern architecture, rectangular shapes.
According to the laws of physics
First of all, the thought about the need for ventilation comes when it comes to places like the kitchen or the bathroom (as well as, which is specific to a country house, the swimming pool, sauna, and gym). That is, in places where oxygen is consumed especially intensively, there is increased humidity and strong smells. A local way out of the situation is local ventilation. For example, a probe above the kitchen stove, air valves in windows or ventilation holes in walls. A grate with a valve is installed on the latter. The methods are, of course, economical, but not very effective. Airflow is small and poorly regulated. But the main thing is that it enters the house exactly at the temperature that is “given” outside.
A more effective option is to supply ventilation, when fresh air from the street is supplied mechanically, and removed naturally. The latter is achieved because, at the design stage, exhaust ventilation ducts are laid in the walls of the house, which go out again into rooms with increased humidity and odors – to the kitchen remodeling, bathrooms, etc. The air will be displaced there in the amount which was brought into the room mechanically.
As for the supply itself, the easiest way to ensure it is a monobloc supply unit. This mechanism supplies the room with air from the street, having previously passed it through a filter and heated it to a comfortable temperature. There are two types of monoblocs. The first is designed for a separate room. It is installed under the window from the inside and supplies air through a drilled ventilation channel with a diameter of 100-150 mm. Outside, this hole is closed with a ventilation net. The convenience of a room monoblock is that it can be easily installed in an already-built house. If you are a supporter of an integrated approach and you do not want to see (and hear) a monoblock in your room, then your option is a universal monoblock designed for ventilation immediately several rooms. It is mounted in the attic, in the garage or the kitchen behind the suspended ceiling.
Enters and exits
The first step on the way to full supply and exhaust ventilation can be considered the installation of separate fans in the exhaust ducts or a single roof fan in the attic. In this case, the fans are connected to the monoblock automation and turn on and off simultaneously with it. However, all these are half-measures.
A more radical solution is a supply and ventilation installation. This is a device that is responsible at the same time for the inflow of fresh air and the extraction of used air with the help of centrifugal fans. The air is filtered at the entrance and exit, heated and cooled – depending on the temperature “overboard”. Centralized humidification of the supplied air is also possible. You can, however, solve this problem by purchasing individual household humidifiers – for those rooms where it is necessary. The body of the installation is mounted, as a rule, in auxiliary premises – in the basement, in the attic, and the storeroom. He will also find a place behind the ceiling in the kitchen. Ventilation shafts for laying air ducts are arranged in the walls, or air ducts are laid behind the hemmed ceiling. In the rooms themselves, only diffusers or ventilation grilles remain in view.
A special issue is the heating of the air in the supply exhaust system. Depending on the type of heating, you can choose to heat the air with electric tones, through a copper-steel heat exchanger (with water heating) or with the help of a gas module and indirect heating. In any case, it is better to decide on this at the design stage to ensure a sufficient supply of electrical power.
To save energy, the installation can be equipped with a recuperator. It is this device that is responsible for the primary heating of incoming air, taking heat from the air that is removed from the room. Thus, less energy is spent on the final heating of the air. During the operation of this system, condensate is formed, which drains into a special tray. In winter, the quality of its electronic anti-icing function is important. In summer, the air needs to be cooled, on the contrary. This happens in the external unit – the compressor-condenser unit when cooling with freon and the chiller – when cooling with water.
The supply and exhaust system heats and cools the air for the entire house to the set temperature. If you want to regulate the temperature in individual rooms, this can be achieved by installing local air conditioners or a central air conditioner.
Technique of perfection
There is another way of forced ventilation of a country house. It is about using a duct air conditioner in ventilation mode. The principle of operation of any air conditioner is that it takes air from the room, cleans it (as well as – if necessary – moisturizes and ionizes it) and then returns it to the room. That is why an ordinary air conditioner cannot replace ventilation – if there is less oxygen in the air and more carbon dioxide, the air conditioner cannot correct this imbalance.
However, if the air duct of the ducted air conditioner is taken outside, then the indoor unit will mix warm air from the room with air from the street, heat or cool the resulting mixture to the desired temperature, clean it, dry or moisten it, ionize it if necessary and feed it back into the room. At the same time, the exhaust air is removed through the hood in the bathrooms and the kitchen.
Such a system allows you to evenly distribute air at the desired temperature throughout the rooms, even if they have a complex shape.
The pressure characteristics of the fan of the indoor unit must be high enough to overcome the resistance of the air in the return and supply network. A system installation specialist will help calculate the required power. Sometimes it is necessary to install an additional fan that increases the pressure. In addition, the heating capacity of the duct air conditioner must be sufficient to maintain a temperature of + 14-16 ° C in the supply air ducts.
In addition to the described basic schemes, variations are possible using air conditioners, fans and natural ventilation. The main thing is to decide on the type of ventilation and air conditioning system you see. at the design stage – then specialists will be able to provide the necessary effect with minimal costs.
Heating, cooling and humidification
Three in one – a modern technological solution for the home. Climate control is provided by a unit that works on the principle of a heat pump, but is located inside the room, in the lower part of the wall. The installation takes fresh air from the street – for this, two small holes are made in the wall and grills are installed. At the same time, the system does not need an external unit, that is, there is no interference with the appearance of the facade. The climate in the room is maintained by an electronic control system. Electricity consumption is reduced to a minimum. Giving off 2.6 kW of heat, the installation consumes 1 kW of electricity. In appearance, the equipment looks like an air conditioner, but it is located in the lower part of the wall. Works almost silently – 37 dB. The most important thing is that the perfect atmosphere is created in the room.